1974 autograph 1st ed ON POETS AND OTHERS FAIR SHAPE. Octavio Paz, a writer of vivid surrealistic verse and penetrating social essays, won the Nobel Prize in Literature today, becoming the first Mexican writer to win literature's highest award. The Swedish Academy of Letters said in its formal announcement that Mr.Paz had won the award''for impassioned writing with wide horizons, characterized by sensuous intelligence and humanistic integrity. Paz's poetry consisted''to a very great extent of writing both with and about words'' and that in his''surrealistically inspired thought, the words are endowed in this way with new, changeable and richer meanings.' The academy quoted a 1976 poem in which Mr. Paz was seen as articulating his literary stance. Between what I see and what I say. Between what I say and what I keep silent. Between what I keep silent and what I dream. Between what I dream and what I forget. Paz, an influential political commentator often attacked by Marxists and nationalists, is probably best known for his many essays. In one major work,''The Labyrinth of Solitude,'' published in 1950, he offered an analysis of modern Mexico and the Mexican personality in which he described his fellow countrymen as instinctive nihilists who hide behind masks of solitude and ceremoniousness.
Paz published his first collection of poetry while a teen-ager. Still active as a writer and critic, he has founded and edited several magazines and has been publishing a literary monthly called Vuelta, which means return, since 1976. He also served as Mexico's Ambassador to France, Switzerland, Japan and India before resigning from the diplomatic service in 1968 after the Mexico City police fired at young demonstrators protesting Government repression of student activists and spending on the Mexico Olympics.Describing himself as a''disillusioned leftist,'' Mr. Paz has since the late 1970's led a personal crusade against what he perceives as a threat of Soviet and Cuban intervention in Latin America. He has also devoted himself to writing and lecturing, in particular at Harvard, where he received an honorary doctorate in 1980. Create an account or log in. The formal presentation for Nobel laureates from all fields is Dec.
Paz, whose distinctive verse has broad appeal and has been well received by critics internationally, has long been mentioned by Swedish publishers and cultural editors as a front-runner for the award. Sture Allen, who is the secretary of the Swedish Academy and who announced the selection of Mr.
Paz, said that the poet had been a finalist for several years. 5 Finalists Out of 150 Writers A total of 150 writers were nominated this year, Mr. Allen said, and five were finalists. In keeping with the academy's tradition of secrecy, he declined to identify the others. But members of literary circles here said that perennial candidates included Carlos Fuentes, another Mexican writer; Nadine Gordimer, the South African writer; V.Naipaul, the novelist, who was born in Trinidad and lives in Britain; Milan Kundera, the Czechoslovak novelist; Max Frisch, the Swiss playwright, and Mario Vargas Llosa, the Peruvian writer. The academy, an assembly of Swedish authors and academics, selects Nobel winners by consensus. Allen said that the selection of Mr. Paz fit the academy's pattern of trying to encompass varying styles, languages and cultures with the award but that the will of Alfred Nobel, who established the prize, stipulated that the award should be''given to the best writers, irrespective of whether they are Scandinavian, Mexican, Nigerian or Australian.' Several Latin American writers have won the prize, the most recent being Gabriel Garcia Marquez, the Colombian writer who won in 1982. Last year's prize went to a Spanish-language writer, Camilo Jose Cela. Couples Have a Working-From-Home Revelation: That's What You Do All Day? Five Adaptable Recipes, All From Your Pantry. Dancers Still Need Daily Class. Some members of Sweden's literary community said they had hoped that a woman would receive this year's award. The last time the prize went to a woman was in 1966, when Nelly Sachs, a writer who was born in Germany and lived in Sweden until her death, shared it with Shmuel Yosef Agnon, an Israeli writer. Asked if the academy was''macho,'' Mr. Allen said that''good, prominent female writers'' had been seriously considered and that he hoped a woman would be selected in the near future. He estimated that one-seventh of this year's nominees were women. Paz was born in 1914 in Mexico City. His mother was Spanish, from Andalusia, and his father, a lawyer and politician, was Indian and Spanish. The poet, the academy said,''embodies this union of cultures - it is in his blood. Paz's grandfather was a public official with liberal ideals and a novelist who was one of the first to write sympathetically about Mexico's Indian population. Paz's love of literature flowered in his grandfather's extensive library and it was the poet's father who planted the seeds of the commitment to social reform found in Mr. Paz was greatly influenced by the Spanish Civil War, which he witnessed in Madrid. After returning to Mexico in 1938, he became a founder of the journal Taller (Workshop) and exerted strong influence on contemporary literature as one of its contributors.
In 1943, he traveled to the United States as a recipient of a Guggenheim award. In 1981, he was awarded the Cervantes Prize, the most important award in the Spanish-speaking world. The following year he received the prestigious Neustadt Prize. One of the high points of Mr.
Paz's poetry is the long poem''Sunstone,'' published in 1957. It was inspired by an Aztec calendar stone, which is based on the conjunctions of Venus and the sun.
The 584 days of the cycle, carved into the stone, are matched by the 584 lines of the poem. The academy said this''suggestive work, with its many layers of meaning, seems to incorporate, interpret and reconstrue major existential questions, death, time, love and reality. From 30 Years of Octavio Paz's Poetry. I find myself at the end of time.
With bad eyes and a cough, rummaging through. There's no one, you're no one. A heap of ashes and a worn-out broom.A rusted knife and a feather duster. A pelt that hangs from a pack of bones. A withered branch, a black hole.
And there at the bottom the eyes of a girl. Drowned a thousand years ago. Glances buried deep in a well.
Glances that have watched us since the beginning. The girl's glance of the aged mother.
Who sees her grown son a young father. The mother's glance of the lonely girl.
Who sees her father a young son. Glances that watch us from the depths. Of life, and are the traps of death. Or what if that fall into those eyes. Were the way back to true life?
From desire, from the hour. White hour, blindness of open eyes. Strike your flint, burn, memory.
Against the hour and its undertow. My grandfather, taking his coffee. Would talk to me about Juarez and Porfirio.The Zouaves and the Silver Band. And the tablecloth smelled of gunpowder. My father, taking his drink.
Would talk to me about Zapata and Villa. Soto y Gama and the brothers Flores Magon. Who was there for me to talk about?'Interruptions From the West (2)'. Hear the throbbing of space. It is the steps of a season in heat. Across the embers of the year. Murmur of wings and rattles. The far-off drumbeats of the storm. The crackling and panting of the earth. Under its cape of roots and bugs. From''The Arms of Summer'.
Mixcoac was my village: three nocturnal syllables. A half-mask of shadow across a face of sun.Our Lady, Mother Dustcloud, came. I went out in the world. My words were my house, air my tomb. Octavio Paz Lozano[a] (March 31, 1914 - April 19, 1998) was a Mexican poet and diplomat. For his body of work, he was awarded the 1981 Miguel de Cervantes Prize, the 1982 Neustadt International Prize for Literature, and the 1990 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Born March 31, 1914, Octavio Paz was introduced to literature early in his life through the influence of his grandfather's library, filled with classic Mexican and European literature.  During the 1920s, he discovered Gerardo Diego, Juan Ramón Jiménez, and Antonio Machado, Spanish writers who had a great influence on his early writings.
As a teenager in 1931, Paz published his first poems, including "Cabellera". Two years later, at the age of 19, he published Luna Silvestre ("Wild Moon"), a collection of poems.
In 1932, with some friends, he funded his first literary review, Barandal. In 1937 at the age of 23, Paz abandoned his law studies and left Mexico City for Yucatán to work at a school in Mérida, set up for the sons of peasants and workers.  There, he began working on the first of his long, ambitious poems, "Entre la piedra y la flor" ("Between the Stone and the Flower") (1941, revised in 1976).
Influenced by the work of T. Eliot, it explores the situation of the Mexican peasant under the domineering landlords of the day.In 1937, Paz was invited to the Second International Writers Congress in Defense of Culture in Spain during the country's civil war; he showed his solidarity with the Republican side and against fascism. Upon his return to Mexico, Paz co-funded a literary journal, Taller ("Workshop") in 1938, and wrote for the magazine until 1941. In 1937 he married Elena Garro, who is considered one of Mexico's finest writers. They had met in 1935. They had one daughter, Helena, and were divorced in 1959. In 1943, Paz received a Guggenheim fellowship and used it to study at the University of California at Berkeley in the United States. Two years later he entered the Mexican diplomatic service, and was assigned for a time to New York City. In 1945, he was sent to Paris, where he wrote El Laberinto de la Soledad ("The Labyrinth of Solitude"). The New York Times later described it as an analysis of modern Mexico and the Mexican personality in which he described his fellow countrymen as instinctive nihilists who hide behind masks of solitude and ceremoniousness.  In 1952, he travelled to India for the first time. That same year, he went to Tokyo, as chargé d'affaires. He next was assigned to Geneva, Switzerland.
He was sent again to Paris in 1959. In 1962, he was named Mexico's ambassador to India. In India, Paz completed several works, including El mono gramático (The Monkey Grammarian) and Ladera este (Eastern Slope). While in India, he met numerous writers of a group known as the Hungry Generation and had a profound influence on them.
In 1965, he married Marie-José Tramini, a French woman who would be his wife for the rest of his life. In October 1968, he resigned from the diplomatic service in protest of the Mexican government's massacre of student demonstrators in Tlatelolco. From 1969 to 1970 he was Simón Bolívar Professor at Cambridge University. He was also a visiting lecturer during the late 1960s and the A. White Professor-at-Large from 1972 to 1974 at Cornell University.
In 1974 he lectured at Harvard University as Charles Eliot Norton Lecturer. His book Los hijos del limo ("Children of the Mire") was the result of those lectures.
After the Mexican government closed Plural in 1975, Paz founded Vuelta, another cultural magazine. He was editor of that until his death in 1998, when the magazine closed. He won the 1977 Jerusalem Prize for literature on the theme of individual freedom. In 1980, he was awarded an honorary doctorate from Harvard, and in 1982, he won the Neustadt Prize. Once good friends with novelist Carlos Fuentes, Paz became estranged from him in the 1980s in a disagreement over the Sandinistas, whom Paz opposed and Fuentes supported.
 In 1988, Paz's magazine Vuelta published criticism of Fuentes by Enrique Krauze, resulting in estrangement between Paz and Fuentes, who had long been friends. A collection of Paz's poems (written between 1957 and 1987) was published in 1990. In 1990, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature.
He died of cancer on April 19, 1998, in Mexico City. Guillermo Sheridan, who was named by Paz as director of the Octavio Paz Foundation in 1998, published a book, Poeta con paisaje (2004) with several biographical essays about the poet's life up to 1998, when he died.
"The poetry of Octavio Paz", wrote the critic Ramón Xirau, does not hesitate between language and silence; it leads into the realm of silence where true language lives. A prolific author and poet, Paz published scores of works during his lifetime, many of which have been translated into other languages. His poetry has been translated into English by Samuel Beckett, Charles Tomlinson, Elizabeth Bishop, Muriel Rukeyser and Mark Strand. His early poetry was influenced by Marxism, surrealism, and existentialism, as well as religions such as Buddhism and Hinduism. His poem, "Piedra de sol" ("Sunstone"), written in 1957, was praised as a "magnificent" example of surrealist poetry in the presentation speech of his Nobel Prize.His later poetry dealt with love and eroticism, the nature of time, and Buddhism. He also wrote poetry about his other passion, modern painting, dedicating poems to the work of Balthus, Joan Miró, Marcel Duchamp, Antoni Tàpies, Robert Rauschenberg, and Roberto Matta. As an essayist Paz wrote on topics such as Mexican politics and economics, Aztec art, anthropology, and sexuality.
His book-length essay, The Labyrinth of Solitude (Spanish: El laberinto de la soledad), delves into the minds of his countrymen, describing them as hidden behind masks of solitude. Due to their history, their identity is lost between a pre-Columbian and a Spanish culture, negating either. A key work in understanding Mexican culture, it greatly influenced other Mexican writers, such as Carlos Fuentes.Ilan Stavans wrote that he was "the quintessential surveyor, a Dante's Virgil, a Renaissance man". Paz wrote the play La hija de Rappaccini in 1956. The plot centers around a young Italian student who wanders about Professor Rappaccini's beautiful gardens where he spies the professor's daughter Beatrice. He is horrified to discover the poisonous nature of the garden's beauty. Paz adapted the play from an 1844 short story by American writer Nathaniel Hawthorne, which was also entitled "Rappaccini's Daughter". He combined Hawthorne's story with sources from the Indian poet Vishakadatta and influences from Japanese Noh theatre, Spanish autos sacramentales, and the poetry of William Butler Yeats. The play's opening performance was designed by the Mexican painter Leonora Carrington. In 1972, Surrealist author André Pieyre de Mandiargues translated the play into French as La fille de Rappaccini (Editions Mercure de France). First performed in English in 1996 at the Gate Theatre in London, the play was translated and directed by Sebastian Doggart and starred Sarah Alexander as Beatrice. The Mexican composer Daniel Catán adapted the play as an opera in 1992. Paz's other works translated into English include several volumes of essays, some of the more prominent of which are Alternating Current tr. 1971, in the UNESCO Collection of Representative Works,  The Labyrinth of Solitude tr. 1963, The Other Mexico tr.
1972; and El Arco y la Lira 1956; tr. The Bow and the Lyre, 1973. In the United States, Helen Lane's translation of Alternating Current won a National Book Award.  Along with these are volumes of critical studies and biographies, including of Claude Lévi-Strauss and Marcel Duchamp both, tr. 1970, and The Traps of Faith, an analytical biography of Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, the Mexican 17th-century nun, feminist poet, mathematician, and thinker.
His works include the poetry collections ¿Águila o sol? Many of these volumes have been edited and translated by Eliot Weinberger, who is Paz's principal translator into American English. II International Congress of Writers for the Defense of Culture.Originally Paz supported the Republicans during the Spanish Civil War, but after learning of the murder of one of his friends by the Republicans, he became gradually disillusioned. While in Paris in the early 1950s, influenced by David Rousset, André Breton and Albert Camus, he started publishing his critical views on totalitarianism in general, and particularly against Joseph Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union. In his magazines Plural and Vuelta, Paz exposed the violations of human rights in communist regimes, including Castro's Cuba. This brought him much animosity from sectors of the Latin American left.
In the prologue to Volume IX of his complete works, Paz stated that from the time when he abandoned communist dogma, the mistrust of many in the Mexican intelligentsia started to transform into an intense and open enmity. Paz continued to consider himself a man of the left, the democratic, "liberal" left, not the dogmatic and illiberal one. He also criticized the Mexican government and leading party that dominated the nation for most of the 20th century. Politically, Paz was basically a social democrat, who became increasingly supportive of liberal ideas without ever renouncing to his initial leftist and romantic views. In fact, Paz was "very slippery for anyone thinking in rigid ideological categories, " Yvon Grenier wrote in his book on Paz's political thought.
Paz was simultaneously a romantic who spurned materialism and reason, a liberal who championed freedom and democracy, a conservative who respected tradition, and a socialist who lamented the withering of fraternity and equality. An advocate of fundamental transformation in the way we see ourselves and modern society, Paz was also a promoter of incremental change, not revolution. There can be no society without poetry, but society can never be realized as poetry, it is never poetic.
Sometimes the two terms seek to break apart. In 1990, during the aftermath of the fall of the Berlin wall, Paz and his Vuelta colleagues invited several of the world's writers and intellectuals to Mexico City to discuss the collapse of communism. Writers included Czeslaw Milosz, Hugh Thomas, Daniel Bell, Ágnes Heller, Cornelius Castoriadis, Hugh Trevor-Roper, Jean-François Revel, Michael Ignatieff, Mario Vargas Llosa, Jorge Edwards and Carlos Franqui. The encounter was called The experience of freedom (Spanish: La experiencia de la libertad) and broadcast on Mexican television from 27 August to 2 September.
Paz criticized the Zapatista uprising in 1994.  He spoke broadly in favor of a "military solution" to the uprising of January 1994, and hoped that the "army would soon restore order in the region".With respect to President Zedillo's offensive in February 1995, he signed an open letter that described the offensive as a "legitimate government action" to reestablish the "sovereignty of the nation" and to bring "Chiapas peace and Mexicans tranquility". Paz was dazzled by The Waste Land by T. Eliot, in Enrique Munguia's translation as El Páramo which was published in the magazine Contemporaries in 1930. As a result of this, although he maintained his primary interest in poetry, he had an unavoidable outlook on prose: "Literally, this dual practice was for me a game of reflections between poetry and prose". Worried about confirming the existence of a link between morals and poetry, in 1931, at the age of 16, he wrote what would be his first published article, "Ethics of the Artist", where he planted the question about the duty of an artist among what would be deemed art of thesis, or pure art, which disqualifies the second as a result of the teaching of tradition. Assimilating a language that resembles a religious style and, paradoxically, a Marxist style, finds the true value of art in its purpose and meaning, for which, the followers of pure art, of which he's not one, are found in an isolated position and favor the kantiana idea of the "man that loses all relation with the world". The magazine Barandal appeared in August 1931, put together by Rafael López Malo, Salvador Toscano, Arnulfo Martínez Lavalle and Octavio Paz. All of them were not yet in their youth except for Salvador Toscano, who was a renowned writer thanks to his parents. Rafael López participated in the magazine, "Modern" and, as well as Miguel D. Martínez Rendón, in the movimiento de los agoristas, although it was more commented on and known by the high school students, over all for his poem, "The Golden Beast". Octavio Paz Solórzano became known in his circle as the occasional author of literary narratives that appeared in the Sunday newspaper add-in El Universal, as well as Ireneo Paz which was the name that gave a street in Mixcoac identity. Inducted Member of Colegio Nacional, Mexican highly selective academy of arts and sciences 1967. Peace Prize of the German Book Trade. National Prize for Arts and Sciences (Mexico) in Literature 1977. Honorary Doctorate National Autonomous University of Mexico 1978. Honorary Doctorate (Harvard University) 1980. Miguel de Cervantes Prize 1981. Nobel Literature Prize in 1990. Grand Officer of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic 1991. Neustadt International Prize for Literature 1982.
1937: Bajo tu clara sombra y otros poemas sobre España. 1941: Entre la piedra y la flor.1942: A la orilla del mundo, compilation. 1954: Semillas para un himno. 1957: Piedra de Sol (Sunstone). 1972: Renga: A Chain of Poems with Jacques Roubaud, Edoardo Sanguineti and Charles Tomlinson. 1979: Hijos del aire/Airborn with Charles Tomlinson.
1989: El fuego de cada día, selection, preface and notes by Paz. 1952: Anthologie de la poésie mexicaine, edition and introduction by Octavio Paz. 1958: Anthology of Mexican Poetry, edition and introduction by Octavio Paz; translated by Samuel Beckett.1957: Sendas de Oku, by Matsuo Basho, translated in collaboration with Eikichi Hayashiya. 1962: Antología, by Fernando Pessoa. 1971: Configurations, translated by G.
L/ noh-BEL; Swedish: Nobelpriset n? Are five separate prizes that, according to Alfred Nobel's will of 1895, are awarded to those who, during the preceding year, have conferred the greatest benefit to Humankind.
Alfred Nobel was a Swedish chemist, engineer, and industrialist most famously known for the invention of dynamite. In his will, he bequeathed all of his "remaining realisable assets" to be used to establish five prizes which became known as Nobel Prizes. Nobel Prizes were first awarded in 1901.Nobel Prizes are awarded in the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace (Nobel characterized the Peace Prize as "to the person who has done the most or best to advance fellowship among nations, the abolition or reduction of standing armies, and the establishment and promotion of peace congresses").  In 1968, Sveriges Riksbank (Sweden's central bank) funded the establishment of the Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, to also be administered by the Nobel Foundation.  Nobel Prizes are widely regarded as the most prestigious awards available in their respective fields. The prize ceremonies take place annually. Each recipient (known as a "laureate") receives a gold medal, a diploma, and a monetary award. In 2021, the Nobel Prize monetary award is 10,000,000 SEK.  A prize may not be shared among more than three individuals, although the Nobel Peace Prize can be awarded to organizations of more than three people.  Although Nobel Prizes are not awarded posthumously, if a person is awarded a prize and dies before receiving it, the prize is presented. The Nobel Prizes, beginning in 1901, and the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, beginning in 1969, have been awarded 603 times to 962 people and 25 organizations. The institution to have the largest number of affiliated winners is University of Cambridge with 121 laureates.
 Four individuals and two organisations have received more than one Nobel Prize. Emphasis on discoveries over inventions. Status of the Economic Sciences Prize. A black and white photo of a bearded man in his fifties sitting in a chair.Alfred Nobel had the unpleasant surprise of reading his own obituary, which was titled "The merchant of death is dead", in a French newspaper. Alfred Nobel listen (help·info) was born on 21 October 1833 in Stockholm, Sweden, into a family of engineers.  He was a chemist, engineer, and inventor. This invention was a precursor to many smokeless military explosives, especially the British smokeless powder cordite.
As a consequence of his patent claims, Nobel was eventually involved in a patent infringement lawsuit over cordite. Nobel amassed a fortune during his lifetime, with most of his wealth coming from his 355 inventions, of which dynamite is the most famous.
In 1888, Nobel was astonished to read his own obituary, titled "The merchant of death is dead", in a French newspaper. It was Alfred's brother Ludvig who had died; the obituary was eight years premature.
The article disconcerted Nobel and made him apprehensive about how he would be remembered. This inspired him to change his will.
 On 10 December 1896, Alfred Nobel died in his villa in San Remo, Italy, from a cerebral haemorrhage. He was 63 years old. Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime.
He composed the last over a year before he died, signing it at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895.  To widespread astonishment, Nobel's last will specified that his fortune be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace.  Nobel bequeathed 94% of his total assets, 31 million SEK c.  Owing to skepticism surrounding the will, it was not approved by the Storting in Norway until 26 April 1897.  The executors of the will, Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, formed the Nobel Foundation to take care of the fortune and to organise the awarding of prizes.
Nobel's instructions named a Norwegian Nobel Committee to award the Peace Prize, the members of whom were appointed shortly after the will was approved in April 1897. Soon thereafter, the other prize-awarding organizations were designated.
These were Karolinska Institute on 7 June, the Swedish Academy on 9 June, and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on 11 June.  The Nobel Foundation reached an agreement on guidelines for how the prizes should be awarded; and, in 1900, the Nobel Foundation's newly created statutes were promulgated by King Oscar II. In 1905, the personal union between Sweden and Norway was dissolved. A paper with stylish handwriting on it with the title "Testament". Alfred Nobel's will stated that 94% of his total assets should be used to establish the Nobel Prizes. According to his will and testament read in Stockholm on 30 December 1896, a foundation established by Alfred Nobel would reward those who serve humanity. The Nobel Prize was funded by Alfred Nobel's personal fortune.
According to the official sources, Alfred Nobel bequeathed most of his fortune to the Nobel Foundation that now forms the economic base of the Nobel Prize. The Nobel Foundation was founded as a private organization on 29 June 1900. Its function is to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes.  In accordance with Nobel's will, the primary task of the foundation is to manage the fortune Nobel left. Robert and Ludvig Nobel were involved in the oil business in Azerbaijan, and according to Swedish historian E.
 Another important task of the Nobel Foundation is to market the prizes internationally and to oversee informal administration related to the prizes. The foundation is not involved in the process of selecting the Nobel laureates.  Since the 1980s, the foundation's investments have become more profitable and as of 31 December 2007, the assets controlled by the Nobel Foundation amounted to 3.628 billion Swedish kronor c. According to the statutes, the foundation consists of a board of five Swedish or Norwegian citizens, with its seat in Stockholm. The Chairman of the Board is appointed by the Swedish King in Council, with the other four members appointed by the trustees of the prize-awarding institutions.An Executive Director is chosen from among the board members, a deputy director is appointed by the King in Council, and two deputies are appointed by the trustees. However, since 1995, all the members of the board have been chosen by the trustees, and the executive director and the deputy director appointed by the board itself. As well as the board, the Nobel Foundation is made up of the prize-awarding institutions (the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institute, the Swedish Academy, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee), the trustees of these institutions, and auditors. The capital of the Nobel Foundation today is invested 50% in shares, 20% bonds and 30% other investments e.
Hedge funds or real estate. The distribution can vary by 10 percent. At the beginning of 2008, 64% of the funds were invested mainly in American and European stocks, 20% in bonds, plus 12% in real estate and hedge funds. Further costs to pay institutions and persons engaged in giving the prizes were 27.4 million kronor. The events during the Nobel week in Stockholm and Oslo cost 20.2 million kronor. The administration, Nobel symposium, and similar items had costs of 22.4 million kronor. The cost of the Economic Sciences prize of 16.5 Million kronor is paid by the Sveriges Riksbank. Wilhelm Röntgen received the first Physics Prize for his discovery of X-rays. Once the Nobel Foundation and its guidelines were in place, the Nobel Committees began collecting nominations for the inaugural prizes. Subsequently, they sent a list of preliminary candidates to the prize-awarding institutions.
The Nobel Committee's Physics Prize shortlist cited Wilhelm Röntgen's discovery of X-rays and Philipp Lenard's work on cathode rays. The Academy of Sciences selected Röntgen for the prize.
 In the last decades of the 19th century, many chemists had made significant contributions. Thus, with the Chemistry Prize, the academy "was chiefly faced with merely deciding the order in which these scientists should be awarded the prize".  The academy received 20 nominations, eleven of them for Jacobus van't Hoff.  Van't Hoff was awarded the prize for his contributions in chemical thermodynamics.
The Swedish Academy chose the poet Sully Prudhomme for the first Nobel Prize in Literature. A group including 42 Swedish writers, artists, and literary critics protested against this decision, having expected Leo Tolstoy to be awarded. Some, including Burton Feldman, have criticised this prize because they consider Prudhomme a mediocre poet. Feldman's explanation is that most of the academy members preferred Victorian literature and thus selected a Victorian poet.  The first Physiology or Medicine Prize went to the German physiologist and microbiologist Emil von Behring. During the 1890s, von Behring developed an antitoxin to treat diphtheria, which until then was causing thousands of deaths each year.
The first Nobel Peace Prize went to the Swiss Jean Henri Dunant for his role in founding the International Red Cross Movement and initiating the Geneva Convention, and jointly given to French pacifist Frédéric Passy, founder of the Peace League and active with Dunant in the Alliance for Order and Civilization. In 1938 and 1939, Adolf Hitler's Third Reich forbade three laureates from Germany (Richard Kuhn, Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt, and Gerhard Domagk) from accepting their prizes.  They were all later able to receive the diploma and medal.
 Even though Sweden was officially neutral during the Second World War, the prizes were awarded irregularly. In 1939, the Peace Prize was not awarded. No prize was awarded in any category from 1940 to 1942, due to the occupation of Norway by Germany. In the subsequent year, all prizes were awarded except those for literature and peace. During the occupation of Norway, three members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee fled into exile.The remaining members escaped persecution from the Germans when the Nobel Foundation stated that the committee building in Oslo was Swedish property. Thus it was a safe haven from the German military, which was not at war with Sweden.  These members kept the work of the committee going, but did not award any prizes.
In 1944, the Nobel Foundation, together with the three members in exile, made sure that nominations were submitted for the Peace Prize and that the prize could be awarded once again. Main article: Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences.
Map of Nobel laureates by country. The following year, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel was awarded for the first time. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences became responsible for selecting laureates. The first laureates for the Economics Prize were Jan Tinbergen and Ragnar Frisch "for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes". The board of the Nobel Foundation decided that after this addition, it would allow no further new prizes. The award process is similar for all of the Nobel Prizes, the main difference being who can make nominations for each of them. The announcement of the laureates in Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009 by Gunnar Öquist, permanent secretary of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. 2009 Nobel Prize in Literature announcement by Peter Englund in Swedish, English, and German.
Nomination forms are sent by the Nobel Committee to about 3,000 individuals, usually in September the year before the prizes are awarded. These individuals are generally prominent academics working in a relevant area. Regarding the Peace Prize, inquiries are also sent to governments, former Peace Prize laureates, and current or former members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee. The deadline for the return of the nomination forms is 31 January of the year of the award.  The Nobel Committee nominates about 300 potential laureates from these forms and additional names.
 The nominees are not publicly named, nor are they told that they are being considered for the prize. All nomination records for a prize are sealed for 50 years from the awarding of the prize.
The Nobel Committee then prepares a report reflecting the advice of experts in the relevant fields. This, along with the list of preliminary candidates, is submitted to the prize-awarding institutions.
 There are four awarding institutions for the six prizes awarded. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute. The institutions meet to choose the laureate or laureates in each field by a majority vote. Their decision, which cannot be appealed, is announced immediately after the vote.  A maximum of three laureates and two different works may be selected per award. Except for the Peace Prize, which can be awarded to institutions, the awards can only be given to individuals. Although posthumous nominations are not presently permitted, individuals who died in the months between their nomination and the decision of the prize committee were originally eligible to receive the prize.
This has occurred twice: the 1931 Literature Prize awarded to Erik Axel Karlfeldt, and the 1961 Peace Prize awarded to UN Secretary General Dag Hammarskjöld. Since 1974, laureates must be thought alive at the time of the October announcement. There has been one laureate, William Vickrey, who in 1996 died after the prize (in Economics) was announced but before it could be presented.  On 3 October 2011, the laureates for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine were announced; however, the committee was not aware that one of the laureates, Ralph M.Steinman, had died three days earlier. The committee was debating about Steinman's prize, since the rule is that the prize is not awarded posthumously.  The committee later decided that as the decision to award Steinman the prize "was made in good faith", it would remain unchanged. Nobel's will provided for prizes to be awarded in recognition of discoveries made "during the preceding year".
Early on, the awards usually recognised recent discoveries.  However, some of those early discoveries were later discredited. For example, Johannes Fibiger was awarded the 1926 Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his purported discovery of a parasite that caused cancer. To avoid repeating this embarrassment, the awards increasingly recognised scientific discoveries that had withstood the test of time.  According to Ralf Pettersson, former chairman of the Nobel Prize Committee for Physiology or Medicine, the criterion'the previous year' is interpreted by the Nobel Assembly as the year when the full impact of the discovery has become evident. A room with pictures on the walls. In the middle of the room there is a wooden table with chairs around it.
The committee room of the Norwegian Nobel Committee. The interval between the award and the accomplishment it recognises varies from discipline to discipline. The Literature Prize is typically awarded to recognise a cumulative lifetime body of work rather than a single achievement.  The Peace Prize can also be awarded for a lifetime body of work. For example, 2008 laureate Martti Ahtisaari was awarded for his work to resolve international conflicts.
 However, they can also be awarded for specific recent events.  For instance, Kofi Annan was awarded the 2001 Peace Prize just four years after becoming the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Similarly Yasser Arafat, Yitzhak Rabin, and Shimon Peres received the 1994 award, about a year after they successfully concluded the Oslo Accords. Awards for physics, chemistry, and medicine are typically awarded once the achievement has been widely accepted. Sometimes, this takes decades - for example, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar shared the 1983 Physics Prize for his 1930s work on stellar structure and evolution.  Not all scientists live long enough for their work to be recognised.
Some discoveries can never be considered for a prize if their impact is realised after the discoverers have died. Two men standing on a stage.The man to the left is clapping his hands and looking towards the other man. The second man is smiling and showing two items to an audience not seen on the image. The items are a diploma which includes a painting and a box containing a gold medal. Behind them is a blue pillar clad in flowers. A man in his fifties standing behind a desk with computers on it. On the desk is a sign reading Kungl. Left:Giovanni Jona-Lasinio presenting Yoichiro Nambu's Nobel Lecture at Aula Magna, Stockholm in 2008; Right: Barack Obama after receiving the Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo City Hall from the hands of Norwegian Nobel Committee Chairman Thorbjørn Jagland in 2009. Except for the Peace Prize, the Nobel Prizes are presented in Stockholm, Sweden, at the annual Prize Award Ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death. The recipients' lectures are normally held in the days prior to the award ceremony.
The Peace Prize and its recipients' lectures are presented at the annual Prize Award Ceremony in Oslo, Norway, usually on 10 December. The award ceremonies and the associated banquets are typically major international events.  The Prizes awarded in Sweden's ceremonies are held at the Stockholm Concert Hall, with the Nobel banquet following immediately at Stockholm City Hall. The highlight of the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony in Stockholm occurs when each Nobel laureate steps forward to receive the prize from the hands of the King of Sweden. In Oslo, the chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee presents the Nobel Peace Prize in the presence of the King of Norway and the Norwegian royal family. At first, King Oscar II did not approve of awarding grand prizes to foreigners. That he changed his mind once his attention had been drawn to the publicity value of the prizes for Sweden. A set table with a white table cloth. There are many plates and glasses plus a menu visible on the table. Table at the 2005 Nobel Banquet in Stockholm. After the award ceremony in Sweden, a banquet is held in the Blue Hall at the Stockholm City Hall, which is attended by the Swedish Royal Family and around 1,300 guests. The Nobel Peace Prize banquet is held in Norway at the Oslo Grand Hotel after the award ceremony. Apart from the laureate, guests include the president of the Storting, on occasion the Swedish prime minister, and, since 2006, the King and Queen of Norway. In total, about 250 guests attend.
According to the statutes of the Nobel Foundation, each laureate is required to give a public lecture on a subject related to the topic of their prize.  The Nobel lecture as a rhetorical genre took decades to reach its current format.  These lectures normally occur during Nobel Week (the week leading up to the award ceremony and banquet, which begins with the laureates arriving in Stockholm and normally ends with the Nobel banquet), but this is not mandatory. The laureate is only obliged to give the lecture within six months of receiving the prize, but some have happened even later.For example, US President Theodore Roosevelt received the Peace Prize in 1906 but gave his lecture in 1910, after his term in office.  The lectures are organized by the same association which selected the laureates. The Nobel Foundation announced on 30 May 2012 that it had awarded the contract for the production of the five (Swedish) Nobel Prize medals to Svenska Medalj AB. Between 1902 and 2010, the Nobel Prize medals were minted by Myntverket (the Swedish Mint), Sweden's oldest company, which ceased operations in 2011 after 107 years.
In 2011, the Mint of Norway, located in Kongsberg, made the medals. The Nobel Prize medals are registered trademarks of the Nobel Foundation. Each medal features an image of Alfred Nobel in left profile on the obverse. The medals for physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, and literature have identical obverses, showing the image of Alfred Nobel and the years of his birth and death. Nobel's portrait also appears on the obverse of the Peace Prize medal and the medal for the Economics Prize, but with a slightly different design.For instance, the laureate's name is engraved on the rim of the Economics medal.  The image on the reverse of a medal varies according to the institution awarding the prize. The reverse sides of the medals for chemistry and physics share the same design. A heavily decorated paper with the name "Fritz Haber" on it. Here Fritz Haber's diploma is shown, which he received for the development of a method to synthesise ammonia.
All medals made before 1980 were struck in 23 carat gold. Since then, they have been struck in 18 carat green gold plated with 24 carat gold. The weight of each medal varies with the value of gold, but averages about 175 grams (0.386 lb) for each medal. The diameter is 66 millimetres (2.6 in) and the thickness varies between 5.2 millimetres (0.20 in) and 2.4 millimetres (0.094 in).
 Because of the high value of their gold content and tendency to be on public display, Nobel medals are subject to medal theft.  During World War II, the medals of German scientists Max von Laue and James Franck were sent to Copenhagen for safekeeping. When Germany invaded Denmark, Hungarian chemist (and Nobel laureate himself) George de Hevesy dissolved them in aqua regia (nitro-hydrochloric acid), to prevent confiscation by Nazi Germany and to prevent legal problems for the holders. After the war, the gold was recovered from solution, and the medals re-cast.
Nobel laureates receive a diploma directly from the hands of the King of Sweden, or in the case of the peace prize, the chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee. Each diploma is uniquely designed by the prize-awarding institutions for the laureates that receive them.  The diploma contains a picture and text in Swedish which states the name of the laureate and normally a citation of why they received the prize.None of the Nobel Peace Prize laureates has ever had a citation on their diplomas.  In June 2012, it was lowered to 8 million SEK.  If two laureates share the prize in a category, the award grant is divided equally between the recipients.
If there are three, the awarding committee has the option of dividing the grant equally, or awarding one-half to one recipient and one-quarter to each of the others. Main article: Nobel Prize controversies. When it was announced that Henry Kissinger was to be awarded the Peace Prize, two of the Norwegian Nobel Committee members resigned in protest.
Among other criticisms, the Nobel Committees have been accused of having a political agenda, and of omitting more deserving candidates. They have also been accused of Eurocentrism, especially for the Literature Prize. Among the most criticised Nobel Peace Prizes was the one awarded to Henry Kissinger and Lê Ð? This led to the resignation of two Norwegian Nobel Committee members.Were awarded the prize for negotiating a ceasefire between North Vietnam and the United States in January 1973. However, when the award was announced, both sides were still engaging in hostilities.  Critics sympathetic to the North announced that Kissinger was not a peace-maker but the opposite, responsible for widening the war. Those hostile to the North and what they considered its deceptive practices during negotiations were deprived of a chance to criticise Lê Ð? As he declined the award.  The satirist and musician Tom Lehrer has remarked that political satire became obsolete when Henry Kissinger was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Yasser Arafat, Shimon Peres, and Yitzhak Rabin received the Peace Prize in 1994 for their efforts in making peace between Israel and Palestine.  Immediately after the award was announced, one of the five Norwegian Nobel Committee members denounced Arafat as a terrorist and resigned.  Additional misgivings about Arafat were widely expressed in various newspapers.
Another controversial Peace Prize was that awarded to Barack Obama in 2009.  Nominations had closed only eleven days after Obama took office as President of the United States, but the actual evaluation occurred over the next eight months.  Obama himself stated that he did not feel deserving of the award, or worthy of the company in which it would place him.  Past Peace Prize laureates were divided, some saying that Obama deserved the award, and others saying he had not secured the achievements to yet merit such an accolade. Obama's award, along with the previous Peace Prizes for Jimmy Carter and Al Gore, also prompted accusations of a liberal bias.
The award of the 2004 Literature Prize to Elfriede Jelinek drew a protest from a member of the Swedish Academy, Knut Ahnlund. Ahnlund resigned, alleging that the selection of Jelinek had caused "irreparable damage to all progressive forces, it has also confused the general view of literature as an art".He alleged that Jelinek's works were "a mass of text shovelled together without artistic structure".  The 2009 Literature Prize to Herta Müller also generated criticism. According to The Washington Post, many US literary critics and professors were ignorant of her work.  This made those critics feel the prizes were too Eurocentric.  The 2019 Literature Prize to Peter Handke received heavy criticisms from various authors, such as Salman Rushdie and Hari Kunzru, and was condemned by the governments of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, and Turkey, due to his history of Bosnian genocide denialism and his support for Slobodan Milosevic. In 1949, the neurologist António Egas Moniz received the Physiology or Medicine Prize for his development of the prefrontal leucotomy.
Walter Freeman had developed a version of the procedure which was faster and easier to carry out. Due in part to the publicity surrounding the original procedure, Freeman's procedure was prescribed without due consideration or regard for modern medical ethics. Endorsed by such influential publications as The New England Journal of Medicine, leucotomy or "lobotomy" became so popular that about 5,000 lobotomies were performed in the United States in the three years immediately following Moniz's receipt of the Prize. Mahatma Gandhi, although nominated five times, was never awarded a Nobel Peace Prize.
Although Mahatma Gandhi, an icon of nonviolence in the 20th century, was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize five times, in 1937, 1938, 1939, 1947, and a few days before he was assassinated on 30 January 1948, he was never awarded the prize. In 1948, the year of Gandhi's death, the Norwegian Nobel Committee decided to make no award that year on the grounds that "there was no suitable living candidate". In 1989, this omission was publicly regretted, when the 14th Dalai Lama was awarded the Peace Prize, the chairman of the committee said that it was "in part a tribute to the memory of Mahatma Gandhi". Geir Lundestad, 2006 Secretary of Norwegian Nobel Committee, said.
The greatest omission in our 106 year history is undoubtedly that Mahatma Gandhi never received the Nobel Peace Prize. Gandhi could do without the Nobel Peace Prize. Whether Nobel committee can do without Gandhi is the question. Other high-profile individuals with widely recognised contributions to peace have been overlooked. An article in Foreign Policy magazine identified seven people who "never won the prize, but should have".The list consisted of Gandhi, Eleanor Roosevelt, Václav Havel, Ken Saro-Wiwa, Sari Nusseibeh, Corazon Aquino, and Liu Xiaobo.  Liu Xiaobo would go on to win the 2010 Nobel Peace Prize while imprisoned. In 1965, UN Secretary General U Thant was informed by the Norwegian Permanent Representative to the UN that he would be awarded that year's prize and asked whether or not he would accept. He consulted staff and later replied that he would.
At the same time, Chairman Gunnar Jahn of the Nobel Peace prize committee, lobbied heavily against giving U Thant the prize and the prize was at the last minute awarded to UNICEF. The rest of the committee all wanted the prize to go to U Thant, for his work in defusing the Cuban Missile Crisis, ending the war in the Congo, and his ongoing work to mediate an end to the Vietnam War. The disagreement lasted three years and in 1966 and 1967 no prize was given, with Gunnar Jahn effectively vetoing an award to U Thant. James Joyce, one of the controversial omissions of the Literature Prize.The Literature Prize also has controversial omissions. Adam Kirsch has suggested that many notable writers have missed out on the award for political or extra-literary reasons. The heavy focus on European and Swedish authors has been a subject of criticism.  The Eurocentric nature of the award was acknowledged by Peter Englund, the 2009 Permanent Secretary of the Swedish Academy, as a problem with the award and was attributed to the tendency for the academy to relate more to European authors.  This tendency towards European authors still leaves many European writers on a list of notable writers that have been overlooked for the Literature Prize, including Leo Tolstoy, Anton Chekhov, J.
Tolkien, Émile Zola, Marcel Proust, Vladimir Nabokov, James Joyce, August Strindberg, Simon Vestdijk, Karel Capek, the New World's Jorge Luis Borges, Ezra Pound, John Updike, Arthur Miller, Mark Twain, and Africa's Chinua Achebe. Candidates can receive multiple nominations the same year. Gaston Ramon received a total of 155 nominations in physiology or medicine from 1930 to 1953, the last year with public nomination data for that award as of 2016.
He died in 1963 without being awarded. Pierre Paul Émile Roux received 115 nominations in physiology or medicine, and Arnold Sommerfeld received 84 in physics. These are the three most nominated scientists without awards in the data published as of 2016. The strict rule against awarding a prize to more than three people is also controversial. When a prize is awarded to recognise an achievement by a team of more than three collaborators, one or more will miss out. For example, in 2002, the prize was awarded to Koichi Tanaka and John Fenn for the development of mass spectrometry in protein chemistry, an award that did not recognise the achievements of Franz Hillenkamp and Michael Karas of the Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry at the University of Frankfurt.  According to one of the nominees for the prize in physics, the three person limit deprived him and two other members of his team of the honor in 2013: the team of Carl Hagen, Gerald Guralnik, and Tom Kibble published a paper in 1964 that gave answers to how the cosmos began, but did not share the 2013 Physics Prize awarded to Peter Higgs and François Englert, who had also published papers in 1964 concerning the subject. All five physicists arrived at the same conclusion, albeit from different angles. Hagen contends that an equitable solution is to either abandon the three limit restriction, or expand the time period of recognition for a given achievement to two years.
Similarly, the prohibition of posthumous awards fails to recognise achievements by an individual or collaborator who dies before the prize is awarded. The Economics Prize was not awarded to Fischer Black, who died in 1995, when his co-author Myron Scholes received the honor in 1997 for their landmark work on option pricing along with Robert C. Merton, another pioneer in the development of valuation of stock options.In the announcement of the award that year, the Nobel committee prominently mentioned Black's key role. Political subterfuge may also deny proper recognition. Lise Meitner and Fritz Strassmann, who co-discovered nuclear fission along with Otto Hahn, may have been denied a share of Hahn's 1944 Nobel Chemistry Award due to having fled Germany when the Nazis came to power.  The Meitner and Strassmann roles in the research was not fully recognised until years later, when they joined Hahn in receiving the 1966 Enrico Fermi Award. Alfred Nobel left his fortune to finance annual prizes to be awarded "to those who, during the preceding year, shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind".  He stated that the Nobel Prizes in Physics should be given "to the person who shall have made the most important'discovery' or'invention' within the field of physics". Nobel did not emphasise discoveries, but they have historically been held in higher respect by the Nobel Prize Committee than inventions: 77% of the Physics Prizes have been given to discoveries, compared with only 23% to inventions. Christoph Bartneck and Matthias Rauterberg, in papers published in Nature and Technoetic Arts, have argued this emphasis on discoveries has moved the Nobel Prize away from its original intention of rewarding the greatest contribution to society. There have been a total of 57 women Nobel laureates compared to 873 male laureates. Most female laureates received them in the peace and literature categories. Marie Curie was the first female to receive the Nobel Prize in 1903 and the only woman to receive it twice. See also: List of female Nobel laureates. In terms of the most prestigious awards in STEM fields, only a small proportion have been awarded to women. Out of 210 laureates in Physics, 181 in Chemistry and 216 in Medicine between 1901 and 2018, there were only three female laureates in physics, five in chemistry and 12 in medicine.
 Factors proposed to contribute to the discrepancy between this and the roughly equal human sex ratio include biased nominations, fewer women than men being active in the relevant fields, Nobel Prizes typically being awarded decades after the research was done (reflecting a time when gender bias in the relevant fields was greater), a greater delay in awarding Nobel Prizes for women's achievements making longevity a more important factor for women (one cannot be nominated to the Nobel Prize posthumously), and a tendency to omit women from jointly awarded Nobel Prizes.  Despite these factors, Marie Curie is to date the only person awarded Nobel Prizes in two different sciences (Physics in 1903, Chemistry in 1911); she is one of only three people who have received two Nobel Prizes in sciences (see Multiple laureates below). Malala Yousafzai is the youngest person ever to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. When she received it in 2014, she was only 17 years old. Peter Nobel describes the Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel as a "false Nobel prize" that dishonours his relative Alfred Nobel, after whom the prize is named, and considers economics to be a pseudoscience.Youngest person to receive a Nobel Prize. Malala Yousafzai; at the age of 17, received Nobel Peace Prize (2014). Oldest person to receive a Nobel Prize.
Goodenough; at the age of 97, received Nobel Prize in Chemistry (2019). Only person to receive more than one unshared Nobel Prize. Linus Pauling; received the prize twice. Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1954) and Nobel Peace Prize (1962).
Laureates who have received Multiple Nobel Prizes: (by date of second Prize). Marie Curie; received the prize twice. Nobel Prize in Physics (1903) and Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1911).
International Committee of the Red Cross; received the prize three times. Nobel Peace Prize (1917, 1944, 1963).
John Bardeen; received the prize twice. Nobel Prize in Physics (1956, 1972). Frederick Sanger; received the prize twice.
Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1958, 1980). United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees; received the prize twice. Nobel Peace Prize (1954, 1981). Erik Axel Karlfeldt; received Nobel Prize in Literature (1931).Dag Hammarskjöld; received Nobel Peace Prize (1961). Steinman; received Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (2011). Married couples to receive Nobel Prizes:. Marie Curie, Pierre Curie (along with Henri Becquerel). Received Nobel Prize in Physics (1903). Received Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1935). Received Nobel Prize in Medicine (1947). Gunnar Myrdal received Nobel Prize in Economics Sciences (1974), Alva Myrdal received Nobel Peace Prize (1982). Received Nobel Prize in Medicine (2014). Esther Duflo, Abhijit Banerjee (along with Michael Kremer). Received Nobel Prize in Economics Sciences (2019). A black and white portrait of a woman in profile.
Marie Curie, one of four people who have received the Nobel Prize twice (Physics and Chemistry). Four people have received two Nobel Prizes. Marie Curie received the Physics Prize in 1903 for her work on radioactivity and the Chemistry Prize in 1911 for the isolation of pure radium,  making her the only person to be awarded a Nobel Prize in two different sciences.
Linus Pauling was awarded the 1954 Chemistry Prize for his research into the chemical bond and its application to the structure of complex substances. Pauling was also awarded the Peace Prize in 1962 for his activism against nuclear weapons, making him the only laureate of two unshared prizes. John Bardeen received the Physics Prize twice: in 1956 for the invention of the transistor and in 1972 for the theory of superconductivity.  Frederick Sanger received the prize twice in Chemistry: in 1958 for determining the structure of the insulin molecule and in 1980 for inventing a method of determining base sequences in DNA.Two organizations have received the Peace Prize multiple times. The International Committee of the Red Cross received it three times: in 1917 and 1944 for its work during the world wars; and in 1963 during the year of its centenary.  The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees has been awarded the Peace Prize twice for assisting refugees: in 1954 and 1981. The Curie family has received the most prizes, with four prizes awarded to five individual laureates.
Marie Curie received the prizes in Physics (in 1903) and Chemistry (in 1911). Her husband, Pierre Curie, shared the 1903 Physics prize with her.  Their daughter, Irène Joliot-Curie, received the Chemistry Prize in 1935 together with her husband Frédéric Joliot-Curie. In addition, the husband of Marie Curie's second daughter, Henry Labouisse, was the director of UNICEF when he accepted the Nobel Peace Prize in 1965 on that organisation's behalf.
Although no family matches the Curie family's record, there have been several with two laureates. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to the husband-and-wife team of Gerty Cori and Carl Ferdinand Cori in 1947 Prize,  and by the husband-and-wife team of May-Britt Moser and Edvard Moser in 2014 (along with John O'Keefe). The Physics Prize in 1906 was won by J. Thomson for showing that electrons are particles, and in 1937 by his son, George Paget Thomson, for showing that they also have the properties of waves.  William Henry Bragg and his son, William Lawrence Bragg, shared the Physics Prize in 1915 for inventing X-ray crystallography.  Niels Bohr was awarded the Physics Prize in 1922, as was his son, Aage Bohr, in 1975.  The Physics Prize was awarded to Manne Siegbahn in 1924, followed by his son, Kai Siegbahn, in 1981.
 Hans von Euler-Chelpin, who received the Chemistry Prize in 1929, was the father of Ulf von Euler, who was awarded the Physiology or Medicine Prize in 1970. Raman was awarded the Physics Prize in 1930 and was the uncle of Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, who was awarded the same prize in 1983.
 Arthur Kornberg received the Physiology or Medicine Prize in 1959; Kornberg's son Roger later received the Chemistry Prize in 2006.  Arthur Schawlow received the 1981 Physics prize, and was married to the sister of 1964 Physics laureate Charles Townes.
 Two members of the Hodgkin family received Nobels in consecutive years: Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin shared in the Nobel for Physiology or Medicine in 1963, followed by Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin, the wife of his first cousin, who won solo for Chemistry in 1964. Jan Tinbergen, who was awarded the first Economics Prize in 1969, was the brother of Nikolaas Tinbergen, who received the 1973 Physiology or Medicine Prize.  Gunnar Myrdal who was awarded the Economics Prize in 1974, was the husband of Alva Myrdal, Peace Prize laureate in 1982.  Economics laureates Paul Samuelson and Kenneth Arrow were brothers-in-law. Frits Zernike, who was awarded the 1953 Physics Prize, is the great-uncle of 1999 Physics laureate Gerard't Hooft.
 In 2019, married couple Abhijit Banerjee and Esther Duflo were awarded the Economics Prize.  Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard was awarded the Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1995, and her nephew Benjamin List received the Chemistry Prize in 2021.
A black and white portrait of a man in a suit and tie. Half of his face is in a shadow. Richard Kuhn, who was forced to decline his Nobel Prize in Chemistry.Two laureates have voluntarily declined the Nobel Prize. In 1964, Jean-Paul Sartre was awarded the Literature Prize but refused, stating, A writer must refuse to allow himself to be transformed into an institution, even if it takes place in the most honourable form. Chosen for the 1973 Peace Prize for his role in the Paris Peace Accords, declined, stating that there was no actual peace in Vietnam. During the Third Reich, Adolf Hitler hindered Richard Kuhn, Adolf Butenandt, and Gerhard Domagk from accepting their prizes. All of them were awarded their diplomas and gold medals after World War II. In 1958, Boris Pasternak declined his prize for literature due to fear of what the Soviet Union government might do if he travelled to Stockholm to accept his prize. In return, the Swedish Academy refused his refusal, saying this refusal, of course, in no way alters the validity of the award.  The academy announced with regret that the presentation of the Literature Prize could not take place that year, holding it back until 1989 when Pasternak's son accepted the prize on his behalf. Aung San Suu Kyi was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991, but her children accepted the prize because she had been placed under house arrest in Burma; Suu Kyi delivered her speech two decades later, in 2012.  Liu Xiaobo was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2010 while he and his wife were under house arrest in China as political prisoners, and he was unable to accept the prize in his lifetime. Being a symbol of scientific or literary achievement that is recognisable worldwide, the Nobel Prize is often depicted in fiction. This includes films like The Prize (1963), Nobel Son (2007), and The Wife (2017) about fictional Nobel laureates, as well as fictionalised accounts of stories surrounding real prizes such as Nobel Chor, a 2012 film based on the theft of Rabindranath Tagore's prize. The statue and memorial symbol Planet of Alfred Nobel was opened in Alfred Nobel University of Economics and Law in Dnipro, Ukraine in 2008. On the globe, there are 802 Nobel laureates' reliefs made of a composite alloy obtained when disposing of military strategic missiles. Despite the symbolism of intellectual achievement, some recipients have embraced unsupported and pseudoscientific concepts, including various health benefits of vitamin C and other dietary supplements, homeopathy, HIV/AIDS denialism, and various claims about race and intelligence.  This is sometimes referred to as Nobel disease. List of female Nobel laureates.
List of Nobel laureates by country. List of Nobel laureates in Chemistry.
List of Nobel laureates in Literature. List of Nobel Peace Prize laureates. List of Nobel laureates in Physics.List of Nobel laureates in Physiology or Medicine. List of Nobel Memorial Prize laureates in Economics.
Fields Medal - Highest distinction in mathematics. Ig Nobel Prize - Annually awarded parody of the Nobel Prize. List of prizes known as the Nobel of a field. Lists of science and technology awards.
Nobel Prize Museum - Museum about Alfred Nobel and the Nobel Prize. Nobel Prize effect - Observation about the adverse effects of receiving the Nobel Prize. This item is in the category "Books & Magazines\Antiquarian & Collectible". The seller is "memorabilia111" and is located in this country: US. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, China, Sweden, Korea, South, Indonesia, Taiwan, South Africa, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Bahamas, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Switzerland, Norway, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Croatia, Republic of, Malaysia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Kitts-Nevis, Saint Lucia, Montserrat, Turks and Caicos Islands, Barbados, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Brunei Darussalam, Bolivia, Ecuador, Egypt, French Guiana, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Guadeloupe, Iceland, Jersey, Jordan, Cambodia, Cayman Islands, Liechtenstein, Sri Lanka, Luxembourg, Monaco, Macau, Martinique, Maldives, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, Pakistan, Paraguay, Reunion, Vietnam, Uruguay.